Sikap China Bakal Jejaskan Kedaulatan Perairan Malaysia

220 buah kapal militia maritim Tentera China telah melabuhkan sauh di kawasan Whitson Reef

Laksamana Philip Davidson, Komander Tentera Laut Amerika Syarikat (USN) di rantau Indo-Pasifik semasa memberi kenyataan kepada Jawatankuasa Senat untuk Perkhidmatan Bersenjata berkata beliau risau dengan perkembangan cita-cita tentera laut China (PLAN) untuk mengambil alih kedudukan USN sebagai tentera laut terulung, di samping mengenepikan peraturan berasaskan perundangan (rules-based order).

Setakat penghujung tahun 2020, jumlah kapal perang PLAN telah mengatasi jumlah yang dimiliki USN dengan kadar 1.2:1. Menurut Pejabat Risik Laut USN (ONI), pada tahun 2015 PLAN mempunyai 255 buah kapal perang. Kini ia memiliki 360 buah kapal perang berbanding 297 milik USN. PLAN dijangka memiliki 400 buah kapal perang dalam tahun 2025 berbanding 355 untuk USN. Kapal-kapal yang diterima oleh PLAN kini adalah jauh lebih canggih berbanding yang pernah dimilikinya dua dekad lalu. Malah, kapal pembinasa Jenis 055 dikatakan memiliki sistem dan persenjataan yang mengatasi kecanggihan kapal pembinasa kelas Ticonderoga milik USN.

PERTAHANAN LAUT DEKAT/PERLINDUNGAN LAUT JAUH

China selama ini mengamalkan doktrin pertahanan laut dekat di mana aset-aset pertahanan adalah lebih sesuai untuk mempertahankan tanah besar China dari serangan luar dan mempertahankan Taiwan dari sebarang percubaan tentera asing untuk menawan pulau tersebut semula setelah ditawan semula oleh China.

Doktrin ini kini telah dilengkapkan dengan doktrin perlindungan laut jauh. Dalam situasi peperangan, China perlu tentukan penguasaannya ke atas laluan-laluan perhubungan laut (SLOC) yang membawa bekalan-bekalan barang-barang keperluan kepadanya. Untuk tujuan tersebut, ia perlu meletakkan aset pertahanan jauh dari tanah besar. Untuk menentukan penguasaan ke atas mineral dan khazanah dasar laut, Pengawal Pantai China (CCG) dikerahkan untuk mencegah kemasukan bot-bot nelayan serta kapal-kapal gerudi miik negara yang mempunyai tuntutan ke atas zon-zon maritim Laut China Selatan (SCS).

CCG yang baru-baru ini diberi kuasa untuk menggunakan kekerasan termasuk melepaskan tembakan ke arah mana-mana vesel yang dianggap menceroboh kawasan perairannya termasuk vesel-vesel penguatkuasaan negara-negara tersebut, termasuk milik Maritim Malaysia.

China menggunakan alasan memperkasakan tentera laut jarak jauh untuk memberi bantuan bencana kemanusiaan (HDR) dan lain-lain bantuan masa aman, tetapi ini merupakan konsep yang boleh bertukar kepada operasi ofensif jarak jauh untuk mencapai cita-cita perlindungan laut jauh.

Selain CCG, satu pasukan yang tidak boleh kita pandang remeh ialah pasukan militia maritim milik China (PLAMM) yang sering menggunakan bot-bot nelayan besar yang diperkukuhkan strukturnya. Anak-anak kapalnya diambil dari kalangan veteran tentera, dan setiap kapal mempunyai stor simpanan senjata api kecil. Dengan haluan yang diperbuat dari besi, kapal-kapal ini juga dilengkapi dengan meriam air, menjadikan mereka kapal-kapal yang paling berkuasa, mempunyai kebolehan untuk menghentam atau melanggar mana-mana kapal asing dan melakukan serangan.

Kedua-dua CCG dan PLAMM kini diletakkan di bawah naungan Angkatan Tentera China (PLA).

Melalui CCG dan PLAMM, kerajaan China berpeluang menulis semula peraturan kebebasan pelayaran (rules of freedom of navigation), perkukuhkan tuntutan-tuntutan maritimnya, menguasai sumber-sumber penting, dan memperluaskan jangkauan ekonominya di seluruh dunia.

SIKAP CHINA DAN PERSEDIAAN MALAYSIA

China mungkin tunjukkan sikap kerjasama dengan negara-negara serantau. Walaupun begitu, sikap China terhadap Vietnam dan Hong Kong boleh dijadikan iktibar.

Semasa campurtangan Amerika Syarikat dalam Perang Saudara Vietnam, China telah memberi sokongan kepada Vietnam Utara untuk mengekang pengaruh Amerika Syarikat dan Soviet Union di negara jirannya itu. Namun, pada tahun 1974 dan 1988, China telah bertempur dengan Vietnam untuk berebut terumbu-terumbu di Kepulauan Paracels dan Spratlys. Pada tahun 1979, China telah melanggar Vietnam sebagai tindakbalas pendudukan Vietnam di Kampuchea.

Walaupun sejak 2005 China lebih gemar menggunakan CCG dan PLAMM untuk cuba menguasai Laut China Selatan dan Laut China Timur (ECS), ia masih mengamalkan sikap ‘paksaan dan pencerobohan‘ (coercion and aggression) untuk menakut-nakutkan jirannya. Contoh termasuk sikap campurtangannya dalam hal-ehwal demokrasi di Hong Kong, persengketaan di sempadannya dengan India, dan juga tanpa ragu-ragu menenggelamkan bot-bot nelayan Vietnam.

Kehadiran 220 kapal PLAMM di Terumbu Whitsun adalah merupakan contoh terkini. Terumbu Subi yang ditambaknya pada tahun 2014 kini telah menerima tambakan tambahan dengan keluasan sekitar tujuh ekar. Kedudukan terumbu ini hanya sekitar 14 batu nautika (26 kilometer) jaraknya dari Pulau Thitu (Pag-asa dalam Bahasa Tagalog).

Dengan menggunakan CCG dan PLAMM, China cuba mencapai hajat untuk mengawal dan menyekat kemasukan kapal-kapal perang dan penguatkuasaan negara-negara asing ke kawasan-kawasan yang dituntut olehnya. Kemudian, ia akan gunakan PLAN untuk mengembangkan unjuran kuasa (force projection expansion) dan meningkatkan keupayaan mengekang pencerobohan kawasan (area-denial capability) di SCS dan ECS.

Filipina telah selesai membina sebuah pelantar mendarat (beaching ramp) di Pulau Pag-asa manakala Vietnam telah memperkukuhkan pertahanan udara dan pesisiran pantai di Pulau Sin Cowe sebagai tindakbalas terhadap sikap China.

Di sini kita dapat lihat betapa pentingnya peranan yang dimainkan oleh Maritim Malaysia dalam perairan Zon Kelabu. Sebagai sebuah agensi penguatkuasaan awam separa-tentera (paramilitary civilian enforcement agency), penggunaan aset-aset Maritim Malaysia sebagai respon untuk memintas aset-aset CCG dan PLAMM adalah lebih bersifat diplomatik berbanding penggunaan aset-aset milik TLDM. Aset-aset Maritim Malaysia memberi ruang untuk penyelesaian diplomatik manakala penggunaan aset-aset TLDM untuk tujuan yang sama dilihat lebih bersifat agresif.

Lebih banyak perhatian perlu diberikan terhadap pembangunan aset-aset laut dan udara Maritim Malaysia di samping aset-aset sokongan seperti pangkalan sendiri serta sistem Perintah, Kawalan, Komunikasi, Komputer, Risikan, Pemantauan dan Peninjauan (C4ISR) nya sendiri, untuk menentukan kedaulatan ZEE Malaysia terpelihara. Aset-aset ini perlu mampu bersaing dengan aset-aset CCG terutamanya bukan sahaja untuk mengekang kemasukan secara haram aset-aset CCG dan PLAMM, malah juga kapal-kapal nelayan jarak jauh (DWF) yang dilindungi kedua-dua buah organisasi ini.

Kerajaan harus sedar bahawa tanpa aset-aset ini, CCG, PLAMM dan kapal-kapal DWF mereka akan berleluasa di perairan kita, sambil menghalang dan mengganggu bot-bot nelayan tempatan. Usaha China menuntut kawasan dan khazanah milik kita sudah tentu akan merugikan kita, apatah lagi dengan kerosakan ekologi dan ekosistem laut kita yang dilakukan melalui penangkapan ikan secara haram, tidak dilaporkan dan tidak dikawal (illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing – IIU).

Jika tiada usaha yang menyeluruh dan serius oleh kerajaan untuk membangunkan keupayaan Maritim Malaysia, trend yang dibawa oleh China akan mengancam dan menjejaskan bukan sahaja kedaulatan, tetapi juga bidang keselamatan (realm of security) bukan tradisi negara ini seperti ekologi dan ekonominya.

Maritim Malaysia: Meredah Ombak Yang Mencabar

KM Bagan Datuk – salah sebuah aset Agensi Penguatkuasaan Maritim Malaysia (APMM) yang memelihara kedaulatan negara tanpa mengira cabaran yang dihadapi

Seramai 24 orang pendatang asing tanpa izin (PATI) ditahan di Teluk Ramunia. Seorang nelayan hilang dan ditemui mati di perairan Kudat, Sabah. Belum sampai penghujung bulan, sejak 1 November 2020 hingga semalam, sebanyak 173 bot nelayan asing (BNA) dari Indonesia telah diusir oleh Maritim Malaysia negeri Perak berhampiran Pulau Jarak. Sebuah kapal Pengawal Pantai China (CCG) Zhongguo Haijing 5402 telah mengganggu sebuah kapal penggerudian minyak serta kapal-kapal bekalannya hanya 44 batu nautika dari pesisir pantai negeri Sarawak. Tiga orang anggota Pasukan Gerakan Am (PGA) Polis DiRaja Malaysia ditembak oleh kumpulan penyeludup dalam dua insiden di sempadan Thai mengakibatkan seorang anggota berpangkat Koperal maut.

Demikianlah rangkuman insiden-insiden diperbatasan yang telah dilaporkan dalam tempoh seminggu ini. Insiden-insiden ini merupakan di antara cabaran-cabaran yang dihadapi oleh agensi-agensi kerajaan terutamanya APMM dalam menentukan sempadan perairan, kedaulatan negara, serta keselamatan komuniti di laut adalah selamat.

Turut berada di perbatasan perairan negara ialah Kapal Maritim Bagan Datuk serta 29 orang anak kapalnya yang dinakhodai oleh Leftenan Komander (Maritim) Nik Mohd Rizam bin Nik Mohd Fauzi, yang meronda di Sektor 6, Selat Melaka. KM Bagan Datuk disokong oleh bot-bot pemintas dari Maritim Negeri Melaka & Negeri Sembilan. Kapal ronda generasi baru sepanjang 45 meter yang ditauliahkan pada 15 Mac 2017 bertindak sebagai kapal induk untuk operasi-operasi pemintasan yang dilakukan oleh bot-bot pemintas di sektor tersebut.

Kehadiran BNA Indonesia di perairan Pulau Jarak bukanlah sesuatu yang boleh dipandang ringan dan remeh oleh umum. Sekiranya dibiarkan atas sebab budi-bicara ataupun atas dasar jiran-tetangga, ianya boleh menjejaskan kedaulatan negara. Kita ambil contoh tuntutan Malaysia dan Singapura ke atas Pulau Batu Putih (Pedra Branca) di mana Perjanjian Inggeris-Belanda, 1824 menamatkan kerajaan Johor-Pahang-Riau-Linggi. Di bawah Perkara XII perjanjian tersebut, tidak ada satu pun pertubuhan British dibenarkan di atas pulau-pulau Karimun, Batam, Bintan, Lingga dan pulau-pulau ke selatan Singapura, manakala pulau-pulau serta batuan-batuan di dalam Selat Singapura menjadi milik kerajaan Kesultanan Johor yang baharu.

Sebuah rumah api didirikan oleh Syarikat Hindia-Timur British (HEIC) di Pulau Batu Putih dalam bulan Jun 1850 dan mula beroperasi pada 15 Oktober 1851. Ianya dioperasikan oleh Lembaga Pelabuhan Singapura yang menjadi sebahagian dari Malaysia. Namun, apabila Singapura dikeluarkan daripada Persekutuan Malaysia pada 9 Ogos 1965, tiada sebarang tindakan diambil oleh pihak kerajaan Malaysia untuk mengoperasikan rumah api tersebut.

Hanya apabila pada 21 Disember 1979 Pengarah Pemetaan Malaysia keluarkan sebuah peta yang menunjukkan Pulau Batu Putih sebagai hakmilik Malaysia, kerajaan Singapura keluarkan bantahan. Mahkamah Keadilan Antarabangsa (ICJ) memutuskan walaupun Kesultanan Johor memiliki Pulau Batu Putih, Batuan Tengah dan Batuan Selatan, namun tidak ada mana-mana pihak dari Malaysia ataupun Johor mengambil sebarang tindakan untuk menunjukkan ianya mempunyai hak ke atas pulau dan batuan-batuan tersebut, termasuk mengoperasikan rumah api di Pulau Batu Putih setelah 31 Ogos 1957. Maka ICJ memutuskan bahawa Singapura mempunyai hak à titre de souverain ke atas Pulau Batu Putih manakala Batuan Tengah menjadi milik Malaysia melalui hakmilik Kesultanan Johor.

Inilah sebabnya APMM aktif menghalau BNA Indonesia, Vietnam dan China yang sengaja menguji reaksi pihak berkuasa Malaysia. Tidak mustahil jika suatu hari nanti negara-negara ini membuat tuntutan ke atas kawasan-kawasan perairan dan pulau-pulau di Malaysia sekiranya Malaysia tidak mengambil sebarang tindakan yang menunjukkan kedaulatannya ke atas kawasan-kawasan tersebut.

Masalah yang dihadapi oleh APMM pula ialah walaupun di atas kertas ia memiliki berpuluh-puluh aset dalam bentuk kapal peronda, bot-bot pemintas serta aset-aset udara, perlu difahami bahawa kapal-kapal peronda kelas Bagan Datuk inilah kapal peronda yang paling baharu dan paling canggih. Kapal-kapal peronda yang lain ada yang usianya sudah menjangkau 40 tahun dan kebanyakannya adalah jauh lebih kecil berbanding kapal-kapal peronda milik CCG. Sebuah kapal peronda kelas Bagan Datuk iaitu KM Lahad Datu serta tiga buah kapal peronda luar pesisir pantai (OPV) masih belum diserahkan kepada pihak APMM. Aset-aset udara pula hanyalah dua buah pesawat sayap kaku jenis Bombardier CL-415MP dan enam buah pesawat sayap putar jenis Eurocopter AS-365N3 Dauphin dan AgustaWestland AW139 – jauh dari jumlah yang boleh dianggap mencukupi.

Semasa kapal CCG Zhongguo Haijing 5402 mengganggu kapal penggerudi minyak serta kapal-kapal bekalan dalam kedudukan 44 batu nautika (80 kilometer) dari pesisir pantai negeri Sarawak, Malaysia telah menghantar dua buah kapal milik Tentera Laut DiRaja Malaysia (TLDM) iaitu Bunga Mas 5 dan KD Keris. Walaupun tindakan tersebut telah membuat kapal CCG tersebut mengalah dan berundur ke perairan Beting Patinggi Ali (Luconia Shoals) namun kita belum dapat menjangkakan reaksi pihak China seterusnya.

Ini adalah kerana Malaysia tidak bertindak balas dengan menggunakan diplomasi badan kapal putih (white hull diplomacy), iaitu kapal-kapal APMM untuk menyelesaikan keadaan. Sebaliknya, Malaysia telah menghantar dua buah kapal yang mempunyai badan kapal kelabu – iaitu kapal perang tentera. Besar kemungkinan, China akan bertindak balas di masa hadapan dengan mengirim sebuah atau dua kapal perang tentera lautnya (PLA-N) untuk mengiringi kapal peronda CCG. Sekiranya China bertindak sedemikian, ia adalah kerana tindakan Malaysia menjadi punca sebab China meningkatkan tahap reaksinya.

China juga baru-baru ini telah memperolehi persetujuan kerajaan Cambodia untuk menggunakan pangkalan tentera laut Cambodia di Ream yang terletak di Telukan Thailand. Sudah tentu kapal-kapal CCG dan PLA-N dapat menggunakan pangkalan ini untuk memperolehi bekalan. Ini bermakna, selain menunjukkan kuasanya di sebelah timur Laut China Selatan di luar pesisir pantai Sabah dan Sarawak, kapal-kapal CCG dan PLA-N juga boeh mengganggu bot-bot nelayan Malaysia serta platform dan kapal-kapal penggerudian minyak di sebelah barat Laut China Selatan iaitu di luar pesisir pantai Kelantan dan Terengganu yang hanya sekitar 15 jam pelayaran dari Ream pada kelajuan 20 batu nautika sejam.

Oleh demikian, adalah penting bagi kerajaan serta rakyat Malaysia memahami peranan penting APMM sebagai sebuah agensi separa-tentera (paramilitary) sebagai kuasa pencegahan bagi kuasa asing bertindak sewenang-wenangnya di dalam perairan serta Zon Ekonomi Eksklusif (ZEE) kita. Penting juga bagi kita memahami kerana APMM amat memerlukan lebih banyak aset dan kelengkapan yang lebih canggih dan besar serta berkemampuan untuk berada lama di kawasan rondaan tanpa perlu diulangbekal terlalu kerap.

Cabaran menguatkuasa undang-undang maritim serta mempertahankan kedaulatan perairan Malaysia juga begitu hebat di musim pandemik COVID-19. Umum tahu bagaimana penularan virus COVID-19 di atas sebuah kapal pengangkut pesawat milik Amerika Syarikat telah melumpuhkan pengoperasian kapal tersebut. Oleh sebab itu, kapal-kapal APMM juga diarahkan supaya menjalankan operasi pengusiran BNA dan bukannya penangkapan. Menurut Leftenan Komander (M) Nik Mohd Rizam arahan pengusiran tersebut bukan sahaja untuk menjauhkan para pegawai dan anggota APMM dari terjangkit virus COVID-19, malah ianya juga adalah kerana penangkapan nelayan-nelayan asing juga mungkin akan mendedahkan rakyat Malaysia kepada penularan mutasi baharu virus tersebut.

Sehubungan itu, pusat-pusat tahanan PATI di negara ini sudah penuh hinggakan kerajaan terpaksa membuka pusat-pusat tahanan PATI sementara untuk menempatkan PATI yang ditangkap di dalam negara. Malah, Timbalan Menteri Dalam Negeri I Dato’ Sri Dr Haji Ismail bin Haji Mohamed Said semasa menjawab pertanyaan di dalam Parlimen pada 18 November 2020 memberitahu Dewan Rakyat bahawa setakat 13 November 2020, Jabatan Imigresen Malaysia (JIM) melaporkan bahawa terdapat seramai 13, 103 orang tahanan di Depot Tahanan Imigresen (DPI) di seluruh negara berbanding kapasiti depot seramai 12,530 orang tahanan pada satu-satu masa.

JIM juga melaporkan bagi tempoh dari 1 Januari 2020 hingga 12 November 2020, seramai 89,086 orang warga asing telah diperiksa. Dari jumlah tersebut, 21,176 orang PATI telah ditangkap untuk siasatan. Sekiranya kerajaan perlu tanggung kos makanan dan minuman berjumlah RM40 sehari bagi setiap orang PATI yang ditangkap ini, maka kerajaan terpaksa membelanjakan sebanyak RM847,040 setiap hari. Proses menghantar PATI pulang ke negara asal lazimnya mengambil masa di antara tiga minggu hingga empat bulan. Maka, kerajaan membelanjakan di antara RM840 hingga RM4800 untuk membekalkan makanan dan minuman bagi setiap orang PATI. Malah, kos keseluruhan untuk menanggung PATI di DPI di seluruh negara ialah sebanyak RM3.4 juta sebulan.

Pandemik COVID-19 juga memberi kesan terhadap emosi para petugas barisan hadapan APMM. Bagi Nasul Abdul Halik yang bertugas sebagai tukang masak KM Bagan Datuk, berjauhan dengan keluarga di Satok, Sarawak sudah tentu memberi cabaran baginya. Apatah lagi beliau baru setahun bertugas dalam APMM. Penularan wabak COVID-19 di Malaysia bermakna sudah setahun beliau tidak dapat menjenguk keluarga di Sarawak. Namun seperti lain-lain anak-anak kapal KM Bagan Datuk, beliau menguatkan semangat untuk melaksanakan tugas kerana moral anak-anak kapal yang lain bergantung juga kepada kemahiran beliau memasak. Sudah tentu rasa masakan beliau perlu sedap tidak mengira sama ada beliau bersedih mahupun mabuk laut akibat cuaca buruk.

Demikianlah di antara cabaran-cabaran yang dihadapi oleh para petugas barisan hadapan kita di Agensi Penguatkuasaan Maritim Malaysia. Biarpun cabaran datang dalam berbagai gelombang, mereka akan tetap menerima cabaran-cabaran tersebut. Namun, lebih banyak sokongan kerajaan dari segi aset, kelengkapan dan kewangan yang diperlukan oleh mereka-mereka seperti Leftenan Komander (M) Nik Mohd Rizam dan anak-anak kapal KM Bagan Datuk untuk menjalankan tugas dengan lebih berkesan dan lebih berwibawa.

Kerajaan Perlu Bersungguh Mempertahankan Kedaulatan Negara

Di antara kapal-kapal nelayan China yang ditahan di perairan Johor oleh Agensi Penguatkuasaan Maritim Malaysia (APMM) – gambar APMM/Kyodo.

Minggu lalu, Agensi Penguatkuasaan Maritim Malaysia (APMM) telah menahan sebanyak enam buah kapal nelayan China dan seramai 60 orang anak kapal di perairan negeri Johor. Keenam-enam buah kapal tersebut yang didaftarkan di Qinhuangdao, 1300km ke utara Shanghai, sedang dalam perjalanan ke perairan Mauritania di barat Afrika apabila mengalami kerosakan berhampiran Tanjung Setapa di Pengerang. Kapal-kapal tersebut ditahan kerana berlabuh dalam perairan Malaysia tanpa kebenaran.

Apa yang menarik di sini ialah keenam-enam buah kapal tersebut adalah dalam perjalanan sejauh berpuluh ribu batu nautika untuk menangkap ikan di barat benua Afrika. Menurut kajian Overseas Development Institute, China mempunyai sebanyak 16,966 buah kapal nelayan jarak jauh. Dari jumlah tersebut, sebanyak 12,490 buah beroperasi di luar perairan China yang diiktiraf antarabangsa di antara tahun 2017 dan 2018. China menguatkuasakan sempadan perairannya mengikut nine-dash line yang direkanya pada tahun 2012 yang bertentangan dengan UNCLOS.

Selain penguatkuasaan yang dilakukan oleh China Coast Guard (CCG) berkenaan sempadan perairannya, penguatkuasaan juga dibuat ke atas tempoh larangan memancing di perairan Laut China Selatan. Penguatkuasaan ke atas larangan tersebut menyaksikan pertembungan di antara nelayan Vietnam dengan CCG. Dalam sebuah kes dalam bulan Jun 2020, sebuah bot nelayan Vietnam telah dikepung dan dilanggar hingga rosak oleh kapal-kapal milik CCG. Awak-awak bot Vietnam tersebut ditahan dan disiksa serta dipaksa menandatangani sebuah dokumen yang memaksa mereka mengakui perbuatan mereka melanggar tempoh larangan menangkap ikan.

Vietnam selama ini menggunakan tindakan diplomatik untuk membantah tindakan CCG, namun penggunaan saluran diplomatik yang terlalu kerap tidak membawa sebarang makna tanpa tindakan yang lebih keras untuk mempertahankan kedaulatan perairannya hinggakan nota-nota bantahan itu dianggap retorik semata-mata serta dimomok oleh rakyat Vietnam sendiri.

Tindakan CCG menghalau bot-bot nelayan Vietnam memaksa mereka untuk belayar lebih jauh ke Selatan untuk menangkap ikan, dan ini mengakibatkan mereka sanggup menceroboh ke dalam Zon Ekonomi Eksklusif (ZEE) lain-lain negara termasuk Malaysia dan Indonesia. Keadaan ini menjadikan mereka lebih terdesak; maka terjadilah insiden-insiden keganasan di laut termasuk serangan ke atas bot ‘Penyelamat 7‘ milik APMM baru-baru ini yang berakhir dengan kematian seorang nelayan Vietnam.

Bukan mudah bagi sebuah agensi barisan hadapan masa aman seperti APMM untuk mengawasi dan mempertahankan kedaulatan perairan Malaysia yang seluas 614.159 kilometer persegi. ZEEnya sahaja mempunyai keluasan sebanyak 453,186 kilometer persegi. Majoriti aset yang dimiliki APMM bukan sahaja lebih sesuai digunakan di kawasan laut wilayah iaitu sekitar 12 batu nautika (22 kilometer) dari garis dasar (titik purata paras air surut terendah), malah ada yang berusia lebih 60 tahun dan boleh mendatangkan bahaya kepada anak kapal sekiranya dirempuh atau terperangkap dalam ribut dan gelombang yang kuat. Aset-aset ini juga tidak mampu menandingi aset-aset CCG yang jauh lebih besar dan berkeupayaan untuk berada di kawasan rondaan lebih lama.

Penggunaan aset-aset TLDM untuk membantu mengawasi dan mempertahankan kedaulatan perairan Malaysia di waktu aman juga hanyalah bersifat ‘barisan kedua.’ Penggunaan aset-aset tentera untuk membuat tugasan penguatkuasaan sebenarnya tidak langsung sesuai, malah lebih mudah untuk mencetus konflik di antara Malaysia dan negara-negara yang menceroboh. Pada bulan April 2012, sebuah kapal peronda tentera laut Filipina, ‘BRP Gregorio del Pilar‘, telah dihalang oleh dua buah kapal “penyelidikan” milik China iaitu ‘Zhonggou Haijian 75‘ dan ‘Zhonggou Haijian 84‘ daripada menahan lapan buah bot nelayan China di persekitaran Terumbu Scarborough. Ianya menjadi sebuah insiden diplomatik yang lebih sukar ditangani pada ketika itu kerana China lebih sukar untuk berkompromi kerana sebuah aset tentera telah digunakan.

Berbalik kepada 12,490 buah kapal nelayan jarak jauh milik China yang beroperasi di luar perairan China yang diiktiraf antarabangsa, kekurangan aset dan penggunaan aset-aset yang tidak bersesuaian dengan kehendak operasi sudah tentu menyukarkan APMM. Sebagai sebuah agensi separa-tentera, ianya memerlukan aset-aset yang lebih besar, lebih keupayaan tembakan untuk menguatkuasakan undang-undang yang berhubung dengan wilayah maritim negara. Kehadiran kapal-kapal nelayan yang diiringi aset-aset CCG di kawasan Gugusan Beting Raja Jarom (North Luconia Shoals), Gugusan Beting Patinggi Ali (South Luconia Shoals) dan Beting Serupai (James Shoal) mencabar kewibawaan serta memberi calar kepada imej APMM.

CCG juga telah dikesan hadir mengiringi kapal-kapal nelayan China dalam perairan Indonesia di sebelah utara Kepulauan Natuna dalam bulan September 2020. Ini bermakna kita mungkin bakal menyaksikan insiden-insiden yang serupa dengan insiden yang melibatkan kapal ‘Haiyang Dizhi 8‘ milik China dengan kapal ‘West Capella‘ di barat-laut Sabah, tetapi kali ini di kawasan-kawasan carigali minyak di luar pesisir pantai timur Semenanjung pula.

Kerajaan harus membina keupayaan APMM sebagai agensi mutlak menguatkuasakan undang-undang berkaitan maritim di Malaysia. Kewujudan APMM pada dasarnya adalah untuk menyatukan kesemua 11 agensi berkaitan maritim di Malaysia. Namun, kehendak politik yang lemah masih menyebabkan peruntukan kewangan disalurkan kepada agensi-agensi yang sepatutnya tidak lagi melakukan penguatkuasaan undang-undang maritim. Ini adalah di antara sebab APMM bukan sahaja tidak mendapat peruntukan yang diperlukan, malah dianggap setara dengan agensi-agensi yang ia sepatutnya gantikan. Walhal, dalam apa jua keadaan yang melibatkan segala jenis insiden di laut, baik pencerobohan nelayan Kelas C dalam zon Kelas A, penyeludupan rokok dari negara jiran, penyekatan kemasukan Pendatang Asing Tanpa Izin (PATI) kesemuanya diletakkan oleh persepsi masyarakat di atas bahu APMM dan bukannya 11 agensi tersebut.

Selain aset-aset yang berpatutan, berkeupayaan dan bersesuaian, Malaysia juga harus gunakan pendekatan diplomatik untuk membawa usul supaya UNCLOS memberi takrif mutlak dan spesifik terhadap gugusan-gugusan pulau dan terumbu seperti yang berada di Laut China Selatan agar lebih mudah untuk keputusan-keputusan International Tribunal for the Laws of the Sea (ITLOS) dikuatkuasakan. Mungkin tidak keterlaluan juga dicadangkan, dalam ketiadaan suatu badan perjanjian seperti NATO, supaya Malaysia, Filipina, Vietnam dan Indonesia membuat satu gabungan agensi-agensi penguatkuasaan maritim untuk berhadapan dengan ancaman pihak China, disamping mengadakan perjanjian-perjanjian serupa dengan Malaysia-Thailand Joint Development Authority, tetapi untuk perikanan. Ianya lebih bermakna berbanding tunduk kepada kehendak China untuk mengiktiraf kedaulatan China di ZEE Malaysia.

Amatlah diharap agar Kementerian Kewangan dapat meluluskan peruntukan yang dimohon oleh pihak APMM demi maruah dan imej negara semasa pembentangan bajet tidak lama lagi.

MMEA’s Baptism of Fire

The two Vietnamese fishing vessels that had attacked the MMEA’s patrol craft

The Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency (MMEA) recently experienced its baptism of fire literally when one of its patrol craft came under attack from Vietnamese fishermen on board two fishing vessels. Early today, an Indonesian smuggler was shot dead in a scuffle with an MMEA personnel.

Incident with the Vietnamese fishermen

The incident involving the Vietnamese fishermen occured some 81 nautical miles from Tok Bali, Kelantan, inside the Malaysian Maritime Zone. This is equivalent to the distance where most of our offshore drilling platforms are located – 150 kilometers from the mouth of the Tok Bali river.. It also means that the Vietnamese fishing vessels were most definitely far from their own waters. They are known to have gone as far south as the Indonesian Natuna islands and have recently rammed several boats from the Indonesian Department of Fisheries to avoid being detained.

Not only that, towards the end of April of last year, two Vietnamese Coast Guard vessels rammed an Indonesian navy vessel in order to stop the latter from detaining several Vietnamese fishing vessels.

In the previous Sunday’s incident, they waited for the seven-men crew of the ‘Penyelamat 7’ to come close to their vessel before ramming their boat, throwing objects including iron blocks, wrenches, sharpened iron rods, cooking gas tank and others at the boat and crew. They have also prepared diesel bombs in several barrels on board their vessel which they threw at the boat with the intention of destroying it and its crew. In defence, the crew fired several warning shots to deter the crew of the fishing vessel from intentionally hindering the enforcement from boarding and inspecting. Still, they did not stop. The consequence, unfortunately, is in the form of a dead Vietnamese fisherman.

Incident with Indonesian smugglers

Near Tanjung Sedili early today, the MMEA foiled an attempt to smuggle exotic birds, the White-Rumped Shama and the Magpie Robin, by Indonesian smugglers using two fibreglass speedboats. The MMEA managed to stop the first boat and detained three Indonesian men aged between 40 to 62 and discovered about 90 cages filled with the birds mentioned.

A second boat arrived unaware that the first boat had been detained. An MMEA personnel jumped on board in an attempt to stop it. The boatman accelerated away in a dangerous manner where he tried to ram the MMEA patrol boat. A struggle ensued between the boatman and the enforcement officer where the former had tried to seize the latter’s weapon. Warning shots were fired by the other enforcement officers but this too was ignored, and a decision was made to use reasonable force to stop the smugglers from harming the enforcement officer on board their boat. A shot was fired and one of the smugglers was hit, and later pronounced dead on arrival at the Tanjung Sedili Medical Centre.

Formation of the MMEA

The men of the MMEA were just doing their job under but not limited to Section 7(2)(b) and Section 7(2)(d) of the Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency Act, 2004 which allows them to board any vessel with the purpose of inspecting and searching, and investigate any offence that is being committed, or about to be committed, or has been committed. The 19 Vietnamese fishermen as well as the Indonesian smugglers that have been detained are now being investigated especially under Sections 307 and/or 186 of the Penal Code for the attempt to murder and for obstructing public servants from carrying out their duties.

The formation of the MMEA was mooted in 1999 and tabling of the MMEA bill was made in Parliament in 2004. Prior to its formation, the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) was managed in a sectoral manner by 11 government agencies and departments, involving 5,000 personnel and more than 400 vessels of all types. A singular and dedicated approach was required, leaning towards the roles of a coast guard, as both an enforcement agency as well as combatant in times of war – in other words, it is a paramilitary body. It in not any different than the Royal Malaysian Police’s General Operations Force (PGA). But unlike the police, the MMEA has the power to investigate and prosecute.

The MMEA acquired hand-me-down assets from the various marine departments and agencies, some of which are already in their 60s. Although procurements of new vessels have been made, the bulk of vessels patrolling our waters are more than 30 years old. Not only that, the numbers are not sufficient to cover the operations. Larger but older vessels need regular maintenance for them to be able to operate continually. Hence, smaller boats that are not meant for long-distance patrols and have no on-station endurance have to be employed.

In Dire Need of Newer and Suitable Assets

It was probably based on this knowledge that the fishing vessels involved in the recent incident were armed with improvised weapons meant to cause the destruction of these smaller patrol boats. Imagine what would have happened to the brave crew of the 20-meter Penyelamat 7 had their boat sunk that day. Desperate to not lose their livelihood if caught, these fishermen would do anything at all to avoid arrest. In April 1993, a Royal Malaysian Navy personnel whom had boarded a fishing vessel off Pulau Kapas in Terengganu was kidnapped, possibly after being overpowered, and was never found. I was made to understand that this almost happened to the men of the MMEA.

We need to understand that these fishing vessels work in packs of several vessels per pack. The MMEA would have to spread itself really thin to follow these packs. When a boarding party has successfully boarded a vessel, the MMEA patrol boat will then go after the other boat. Now imagine this: each fishing vessel is crewed by about ten men. Each Penyelamat-class boat has a crew of about eight. How many MMEA personnel can be put on each fishing vessel safely if they are not to be overpowered, and if there are three or four fishing vessels in a pack? In the case of the Penyelamat 7, it would have taken two hours and 40 minutes for another fast MMEA boat travelling at a speed of 30 knots to get to their location. In those two hours and 40 minutes, they would have to rely on sheer guts and luck to stay safe while facing 40 desperate and determined men.

Therefore, it is imperative that the government equip the MMEA with more purpose-built assets which are newer, larger and faster, to replace the current older ones as well as boats that are not built for long-range patrols. As its name suggests, the Penyelamat 7 was built for search-and-rescue operations, not enforcement. The MMEA would also be needing mobile floating bases – perhaps converted merchant vessels that can house extra crew, the Special Task and Rescue (STAR) team with a helicopter and fast Rigid-Hulled Inflatable Boats to act as a logistics ship for the MMEA patrol vessels as well as back ups for its patrol vessels. This way, patrol vessels will have a longer range and patrol endurance to intercept the packs.

Faster and capable patrol boats also need to be acquired for anti-piracy and anti-smuggling operations especially in the Johor waters and the Strait of Melaka.

The Vietnamese fishing fleets are known to be accompanied by a ‘mothership’ so that they can fish far from their waters, while the Indonesia smugglers and pirates are only a short hop away, able to carry out hit-and-run raids quickly if left unchecked. It is about time the government becomes serious about the matter and better equip the MMEA as any paramilitary force should be equipped.

Defence: RMAF’s Walks Slowly But With Big Strides

RMAF Airbus A400M (M54-04) on finals at the Labuan airbase during exercise PARADISE 2017

The A400M: How Has It Fared?

When the Royal Malaysian Air Force purchased the Airbus Defence and Space A400M Atlas, many thought it was to replace the Lockheed C-130H-30 that had entered service in 1976.  15 C-130Hs were delivered to the RMAF with 14 still flying.

However, the RMAF announced further upgrades to its C-130H fleet to keep them operational.  The A400M’s role, although similar to that of the C-130H, enhances the RMAF’s airlift capability.  Not only can the A400M carry 17 tonnes more payload compared to the C-130H, it can fly 200 knots faster and land on rough or soft landing strips like the C-130H.

Its glass cockpit/side-stick  coupled with three-axis fly-by-wire (FBW) with flight envelope protection configuration makes the A400M user-friendly and is based on the A380 but modified to suit military operations requirements.  The flight envelope protection allows the A400M to perform bank angles up to 120 degrees!

The cockpit of the RMAF A400M (M54-04) is large and is very comfortable

Not only could the A400M support the Malaysian Armed Forces’s tactical and strategic capabilities, it could also be utilised for Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) operations in the region.  To date, the RMAF’s A400Ms have performed two HADR roles: delivering 17 tonnes of aid to embattled Marawi in July 2017 and 12 tonnes of aid to the Rohingya refugees in south Bangladesh in September 2017.

RMAF A400M (M54-04) is being loaded with HADR cargo bound for Marawi

The remarkable thing especially about the Marawi mission was the A400M’s ability to fly to Cagayan del Oro and back without refuelling (an approximately 5,400 kilometers return trip); this, together with its speed cuts down total turnaround time.

The A400M is equipped with the defensive aid sub-system and an in-flight refueling capability.  The inflight-refueling package allows the A400M to refuel helicopters at 105 knots indicated airspeed (KIAS) and fighters at up to 300 knots, hence safer for the refuelling of both helicopters and fighters.  Flight tests have also revealed that at Alpha Max (with the Alpha Floor protection disabled, the A400M reached 98 KIAS before  the FBW low-speed protection function eased the nose down. There was no wing roll-off or loss of control. Recovery was almost immediate when the nose was lowered and thrust added, underscoring the fact that the A400M is indeed a very safe and capable aircraft.

Maritime Patrol Aircraft – Budgeted For

The Beechcraft Super King Air 200T MPA has been in service with RMAF for 23 years

For almost two decades the role of maritime patrol was assigned to several C-130Hs that were converted to C-130MPs.  Four Beechcraft Super King Air B200T aircraft were inducted into the RMAF maritime patrol fleet to complement the C-130MPs.  However, the high operational costs versus mission requirements of the C-130MPs saw the latter taking over the role completely.

Even before the loss of an airframe, there were already talks of replacing the B200Ts.  Leonardo brought its ATR-72MP aircraft to LIMA ’17.  Apart from the hardpoints and MPA modules on board, the ATR-72MP is just a normal commercially-available aircraft, powerplants and all.  Leonardo’s concept is to provide a platform using what is available in large numbers in the market to keep the costs down.

The Leonardo ATR-72MP, seen here at LIMA 17, also comes with an electronic surveillance and C4I platform. The airframe is that of the ATR-72-600 (photo courtesy of Janes Defence)

Airbus Defence and Space flew a CN295 almost around the world to promote it as a multirole platform.  The CN295, albeit a SAR version that was on its way to its new home in Brazil, made a stop in Malaysia and was presented to operators such as the RMAF, the MMEA, as well as the Royal Malaysian Police Air Wing.

Stretched three metres longer than the CN235 that the RMAF is currently operating, everything about the CN295 is very similar to the CN235, which makes crew conversion fairly easy to make.  It comes with a more powerful plant that features better efficiency, longer loiter capability at station and comes with six external hardpoints for ASW weapons.

When the announcement of the budget for the procurement of four MPAs in 2018 was made, the immediate follow-through was that four of the RMAF’s remaining seven CN235s will be fitted with the MP systems from the B200Ts, a sure sign that either additional CN235s will be acquired for the MPA role, or the CN295s would be acquired instead.

The commonality between the C295 and the CN235 also potentially leads to  even lower operating costs, given the versatile cabin configuration that allows fast switching of mission types, high manouvrability, better low-level flying capabilities given the high-wing configuration and a wide rear ramp, the C295 makes the best option for maritime patrol and surveillance as well as anti-submarine warfare missions in Malaysia.

The C295 is powered by twin PW127G turboprop engines driving Hamilton Sundstrand Type 568F-5 six bladed propellers which provide outstanding hot and high performance, low fuel consumption, and an endurance exceeding 11 hours.  Flying at a maximum speed of 480 km/h which is slower than the  B200T’s 540 km/h, but has a range of 5,600 kilometers compared to the  B200T’s 3,100 kilometer range.

The RMAF’s need for a reliable platform that would be able to perform largely anti-shipping missions and has a reasonable but economical loiter endurance with some strike capability if required makes the CN295 a better choice of MPA. It also makes strategic and economical sense for Malaysia as it allows operators to narrow down its aircraft types and suppliers, making logistical and technical support easier.

The Airbus C-295 of the Força Aérea Brasiliera arrived at the Subang airbase on Friday 7 July 2017

UAV, MRCA and LIFT

Although the procurement of the badly needed MRCA to replace the MiG-29Ns have not been announced, the RMAF is making up for the void by ensuring high serviceability rate of its frontliners.  Observers would note that the serviceability percentage has increased tremendously despite the cut in the defence budget.

Perhaps the RMAF should think of an interim fighter or Lead-In Fighter Trainer  (LIFT) that gives the bang for bucks.  The Korea Aerospace Industries’s TA-50 LIFT comes into mind.  Each unit of the more advanced FA-50 costs half or three times less than a top-of-the-line fighter would but it carries enough sting to hurt the enemy.

RoKAF Black Eagle’s KAI T-50B zooms above Langkawi during LIMA 17

Losing only but not much in terms of range to the BAe Systems Mk 108/208 that the RMAF currently deploys in Labuan to cover both the eastern South China and Sulu seas, the TA-50’s ability to reach supersonic speeds (Mach 1.5 compared to the Hawk’s Mach 0.84) and excellent thrust-to-weight ratio (0.96 to the Hawk’s 0.65) means that the TA-50 would make a better aircraft placed on Alert 5 to intercept straying foreign aircraft. Its superb ability to deliver air-to-ground as well as anti-shipping ordnances makes it a suitable platform to support anti-incursion/counter-insurgency operations in the ESSCOM area.

The RMAF is also interested to develop its Unmanned Aerial Vehicle capability in both tactical and strategic aspects.  RMAF Chief General Tan Sri Dato Seri Affandi bin Buang TUDM said that the RMAF is conducting a detailed study to identify the UAV capable of meeting the current needs of the country apart from being equipped with technologies which could be shared with various parties in the country.

The Chief of RMAF (second from left) speaking to reporters during Exercise PARADISE 4/2017 at the Kota Belud Air Range

Besides security surveillance, UAV can also be used for other purposes such as weather information and others,” he said. “If the RMAF is able to acquire sophisticated UAVs we would be able to enhance our operations in the Peninsular, Sabah, Sarawak and also in support of the MPAs patrolling the South China Sea as well as the Sulu Sea.

Hopefully the RMAF would acquire UAVs with extended on-station endurance with some hardpoints for strike capability.

Epilogue

Although the RMAF is still in want of frontline airframes, it is seen to improve its serviceability percentage, a task that seemed daunting in times of global econmic uncertainty, but certainly achievable.  The plan to purchase capable Maritime Patrol Aircraft as per the 2018 Budget, and planned addition of sophisticated UAVs, will certainly enhance its control over the airspace.

It is hoped that the government could look into equipping the RMAF with interim strike capability, especially in the South China and Sulu seas, by adding a squadron or two of the KAI TA-50, if not a squadron each of the TA-50 and its frontline version, the FA-50, hopefully by 2020, before preparing its budget for the procurement of actual frontline MRCAs that are badly needed, not only as replacements of the recently-retired MiG-29N, but also as a contingency to replace the F/A-18D which is already in its 20th year of service with the RMAF.

The RMAF may seem to walk slowly, but it is definitely walking with big strides.

Defence: LIMA ’17 Roars In Langkawi

Three RMAF Airbus A400M aircraft perform a fly pass at the LIMA ’17 exhibition

Defence expenditure is likely to rise as this region and beyond continue to face traditional and non-traditional threats.  The role of the defence industry is also changing dramatically, as new and changing threats require further research and development, increasing the overall costs and pricing of defence products and services.

This was the gist of the message conveyed by Dato’ Sri Najib Razak, the Prime Minister of Malaysia, at the opening ceremony of the Langkawi International Aerospace and Maritime 2017 (LIMA ’17) exhibition this morning.

“We need to equip our fighting men with the capabilities required to face modern warfare, both symmetrical and asymmetrical, and LIMA ’17 brings together major aerospace and maritime firms from around the world to demonstrate their state-of-the-art static and aerial displays and cutting-edge technologies,” he added.

One of the exhibitors, Leonardo Helicopter Division, a division of the Leonardo S.p.A that is headquartered in Italy, celebrated today the successful reaching of the impressive 100,000 flying hours milestone with the Weststar Aviation Services’s AW139 fleet.

Weststar Aviation Services is the largest South East Asian offshore helicopter services provider and largest helicopter operator of the AW139 in Asia.

Dato’ Sri Najib Razak visiting one of the booths at the Mahsuri International Exhibition Center in Langkawi after the opening of LIMA ’17

Leonardo has also brought the ATR-72MP aircraft which is being proposed for Malaysia’s requirement for an advanced new maritime patrol capability.  In the Electronics Warfare segment, Leonardo has signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Hensoldt (the new name for Airbus DS Electronics and Border Security) to offer Mode-5 IFF (Identification Friend or Foe) solutions to customers around the world. This collaboration between two European leaders in defence electronics technology shows how, by joining forces, the team can position itself as market leader for cutting-edge new requirements. The two companies, working together as “Team Skytale”, have already been selected as preferred bidder by the UK Ministry of Defence to upgrade IFF systems on more than 400 land, sea and air vehicles.

The ATR 72MP is a multirole Maritime Patrol, Electronic Surveillance and C4I (Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence) aircraft with very affordable costs, developed and built by Leonardo’s Aircraft Division from the platform of the modern ATR 72-600 regional turboprop (pic courtesy of Leonardo Company)

The IFF technology allows operators to electronically identify friendly forces, distinguishing them from potential enemies. It does this by sending out an interrogation signal to unidentified platforms and verifying the automatic responses that are sent back, effectively a modern-day challenge and password system. Ensuring that ground, air and naval crews can reliably recognise their compatriots is one of the main ways of avoiding ‘friendly fire’ incidents. In 2020, all NATO nations are mandated to switch over to the new, more-secure ‘Mode-5’ version of the technology and other nations looking to operate alongside NATO forces will also need to be able to interact with the new standard. Mode-5 uses the latest cryptographic techniques to avoid the threat of deception by adversaries.

In another development, Thales has been selected by AirAsia to supply avionics systems on AirAsia’s new fleet of 304 A320neos.  Thales will equip the 304 single-aisles with its market leading Flight Management System (FMS), the navigation solution of choice for Airbus aircraft, alongside the THALES/ACSS T3CAS surveillance platform, the preferred solution for all Airbus single aisle aircraft.

AirAsia’s Airbus A320neo (pic courtesy of Economy Traveller)

Thales has been partnering with AirAsia, leading LCC in Asia, since 2005, forging a close relationship in support of the airline’s growth strategy. AirAsia already equips their entire Airbus fleet with Thales systems and has selected the group for all maintenance and support operations for Thales systems equipped across their entire A320 fleet of 200 aircraft. In addition to the avionics suite, Thales will continue to provide a Repair-by-The-Hour (RBTH) long-term maintenance contract to support AirAsia’s fleet expansion.  The agreement provides guaranteed turnaround times on repairs and offers a commitment of reliability with reduced operational risk.

Malaysia Minister of Defence, Hishammuddin Tun Hussein, meets with representatives from five countries to discuss asymmetrical threats by Da’esh

Meanwhile, Malaysia’s Minister of Defence, Dato’ Seri Hishammuddin Tun Hussein, met with representatives from five countries including Pakistan, Turkey, Indonesia and Qatar to present his view on how to combat the Da’esh threats.  The establishment of the King Salman Center of International Peace was also on the agenda of this meeting.

The RoKAF Black Eagles performing the “Bomb Burst” formation over Langkawi

Making its debut in Langkawi is the Republic of Korea Air Force’s 53rd Air Demonstration Group.  Commonly known as the “Black Eagles” the RoKAF team buzzed the skies of Langkawi in their KAI T-50B Golden Eagle supersonic advanced trainers.  The T-50B is one of the few supersonic trainers currently available in the world.

The Russians is well-represented.  The “Russian Knights (Russkiye Vityazi)” aerobatic team showcasing their Sukhoi Su-30SM aircraft for the first time outside Russia, while the Royal Malaysian Air Force performs aerobatics in its Sukhoi Su-30MKM.

The air aces of the two countries, whose performances constantly evoke admiration of the audience, highly praised the flight characteristics of their supermanouverable aircraft.

President of Irkut Corporation Oleg Demchenko marked the high skills of pilots and their ability to use the maximum extent of the fighter’s capabilities while First vice-president of UAC Alexander Tulyakov said: “Positive evaluation of aircraft given by pilots is very important for us – the developers and manufacturers”.

The meeting resulted with a joint photo shoot against the background of Su-30SM and Su-30MKM aircraft.

Sukhoi Su-30 pilots from the Russian Knights and the RMAF’s No.11 Squadron pose together

Russian’s Rostec State Corporation is working with the government of Malaysia to expand cooperation through the supply of civilian products and aviation.

“Over the last 20 years Malaysia has been a strategic partner of the Rostec State Corporation. We are actively involved in military and technical cooperation in a number of areas: aviation, the army and the military navy, and in recent years our cooperation has gained momentum.  We are currently engaged in arms supply programs and are upgrading technology that was previously supplied to Malaysia.

We are also looking to extending our cooperation to civil areas that have growth potential: electronics, composite materials and IT. The civil aviation market, especially the helicopter sector, is also showing great potential for us,” said Head of the joint delegation from Rostec and Rosoboronexport at the 2017 LIMA exhibition Viktor Kladov, Director for International Cooperation and Regional Policy Department of the State Corporation.

“LIMA-2017 is the most important event for the aviation and military navy markets of Malaysia and the surrounding region and our participation in it is a long-standing tradition. LIMA-2017 is attracting representatives of various countries of this region and we are looking to conducting fruitful negotiations both with the Malaysian Government and delegations from other countries,” he pointed out.

In the afternoon, the Prime Minister Najib Razak officiated the Maritime Segment which also involved major exhibitors such as THALES, MAST, ACS and SAAB, showcasing the latest technologies in defence products and a demonstration by the elite forces of Malaysia’s security enforcement agencies.

This year’s opening gimmick had the elite forces searching for a box containing a key for the Prime Minister to activate the launch sequence. The key was located using technologically-advanced, unmanned equipment that assisted the forces, including from the Royal Malaysian Navy (RMN), and was handed over to the Chief of Navy, Admiral Tan Sri Ahmad Kamarulzaman Haji Ahmad Badaruddin who then handed it to the Prime Minister.

Following the launch, a live action demonstration from the RMN Special Forces, the Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency, the Royal Malaysian Police and the Marine Department of Malaysia with the setting being a hostage rescue mission at sea.

Demonstration by the Royal Malaysian Navy’s special forces, the Marine Operations Force of the Royal Malaysian Police, the Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency and the Marine Department performs a demonstration

Later, Najib officiated the naming ceremony of the Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency’s latest Offshore Patrol Vessel, the “KM Pekan”.  In attendance were Defence Minister Hishammuddin Tun Hussein as well as Japan’s Deputy Minister of Land Infrastructure, Transportation and Tourism, Tanaka Ryosei.

The “KM Pekan” is one of two offshore patrol vessels donated by the Japanese government to the MMEA in 2016.  Both vessels are 92 meters in length with speed of 20 knots and endurance of 30 days, suitable for enforcement missions in the South China Sea as well as in eastern Sabah.  Both are equipped with a helideck and state-of-the-art radars.

According to the Director-General of the MMEA, Admiral (Maritime) Datuk Seri Ahmad Puzi Ab Kahar, a set of crew has been sent to Japan to bring home the second vessel.

For yesterday’s article, please click Defence: LIMA ’17 To Be More Exciting

Trumped

Donald Trump is the 45th President of the United States of America
Donald Trump is the 45th President of the United States of America

A few hours before Hillary Clinton conceded defeat, signs were everywhere that she was heading down the abyss.  On Twitter people were talking about moving to Canada while the Canadian Immigration website crashed for reasons not yet known to us.  Hillary finally conceded defeat making Trump the President-elect.  The next four years of his Presidency is going to be worth watching.

I can understand how the supporters of the Democrats feel right now, my home state of Selangor fell to what was the Barisan Alternatif in 2008 and the first 24 hours was filled with uncertainties.  In the end, it was business as usual albeit having to sufer the occasional water outtages as well as incompetent solid wastes collection contractors.  Other than that the state runs on autopilot while the politicians in charge of the state are busy giving ceramahs non-stop.

Trump has promised to make America great again.  To make America great again America’s military would also be made great.  It also means that America’s businesses will be given priority over foreign-owned ones.

How does this augur for Malaysia?

Firstly, the Republican-heavy Congress would not pass the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement as Trump sees the TPPA as a vehicle that would allow Asian businesses to take over the American economy.  If it were to go ahead a major tweaking of the TPPA needs to be done – tariffs would be raised to favour the American economy and that would not go down well with the other potential TPPA partners.  Anyhow, with the TPPA still not ratified, Trump is likely to hold to his pledge to withdraw the United States from the free-trade agreement.  The good thing from that would be Malaysia’s continued hold on its protectionist policies aimed at preserving the Bumiputra rights as well as the protection for local industries.

Malaysia’s manufactured exports to the US saw an increase by 13 percent recently.  With Trump favouring the great American economy, this would be greatly affected since Malaysia’s economy is 90 percent reliant on exports.  Nomura Holdings in early July 2016 in a report titled ‘Trumping Asia’ bluntly said that if Trump wins, Asia loses.  The Philippines would be the country in the South East Asian region that would be most affected by Trump’s Presidency while Malaysia is fourth after Indonesia.

Chart image from Boomberg with source from Nomura
Chart image from Boomberg with source from Nomura

It is not surprising then to see Prayuth Chan-O-Cha of Thailand, Lee Hsien Loong of Singapore, Duterte of the Philippines and Najib Razak of Malaysia visit China in May, September, mid October and end October respectively to strengthen economic ties and increase trade with China.  These leaders must have predicted that the Democrats would lose to the GOP and knew that if trade is not increased with the largest Asian economic power these nations would stand to lose.  Purchasing the Chinese corvettes was definitely a good decision now given that any purchase from the Western powers would come with lots of strings attached.

China is not without danger because of Trump’s Presidency.  With levels breaching the USD 600 billion level, China is the US’s largest trading partner, and as President, Trump could impose punitive duties that includes a 15 percent tariff on China for a maximum of 150 days without having to go to Congress for approval.

Militarily, Trump had made a statement on China’s expansion in the South China Sea. “We have rebuilt China, and yet they will go in the South China Sea and build a military fortress the likes of which perhaps the world has not seen,” Trump said. “Amazing, actually. They do that, and they do that at will because they have no respect for our president and they have no respect for our country.”

I am of the opinion that the term “We have rebuilt China” used by Trump is the large balance of payments deficit that the US has with China.  If the US could ‘prove’ that China is a currency manipulator, which the US Treasury could easily declare without needing the approval of the Congress, it could trigger a range of trade restrictions against China – a form of pressure for China to ‘respect’ the US as required by Trump to make America great again.  Which is why the visit by Najib Razak to China recently was not an act of ‘kow-towing‘ to a Big Brother, but rather saying “Malaysia is a friend, how can you (China) help us so we can help you?”  China now needs its South East Asian neighbours as well as Russia as its allies.

We have stepped into an era that will be filled with surprises and not less scarily challenging.  The only consolation is that George Soros who finances both the Hillary campaign machinery as well as the Opposition and pro-Opposition organisations in Malaysia will find it hard to thrive.  Perhaps as a gesture of goodwill Trump should look into the affairs of the Open Society Institute and how its financing of the Arab Spring has given rise to the terrorist activities in North Africa, the Middle East as well as in South East Asia and take criminal action against the OSI.

As Tharman Shanmugaratnam, Singapore’s Deputy Prime Minister said early this year, “We are all discovering Donald Trump, as he is himself: there is a stream of consciousness approach to policy pronouncements. One can only hope that it evolves towards addressing the strategic interests of the United States in the world.”

There may be a side to Donald Trump that we have not yet seen.  Others with better insight into things would probably have a better read of his character.  Of course, I am not talking about the Pribumi supremo. He never has anything good to say.

Madman
Madman

Trump would also need friends as China does, and he would look at nations with leaders who are level-headed as they are smart.  I was about to end this post when I saw this Tweet on my timeline:

A tweet by Jonathan Head, BBC's Southeast Asia correspondent
A tweet by Jonathan Head, BBC’s Southeast Asia correspondent

Apparently, not only is Najib Razak a golf buddy of Barack Obama.  He is also Trump’s favourite Prime Minister, as signed on a photograph taken of the two of them.  As I said, leaders have to have foresight and know what is best for the country he leads.  And a line in Shakespeare’s Henry VIII that reminds me exactly of this situation:

Heat not a furnace for your foe so hot that it do singe yourself.

Najib Razak's looking forward to meeting Trump...again
Najib Razak’s looking forward to meeting Trump…again

I call that a masterstroke from a great Statesman.

Paradise Won

A flight of B-52 bombers from the USAF flew around Second Thomas Shoal and Mischief Reef in the Spratlys and were quickly challenged by Chinese Air Traffic Controller during the weekend of the 8th and 9th November 2015.

US PACAF released the transcript of the exchange between the bombers and the Chinese ATC and was reproduced by Alert 5 and are as follows:

Chinese ATC: “You have violated my reef. Change your course to avoid misjudgement.”

Chinese ATC: “You have violated the security of my reef. Change course to avoid misjudgment.”

Reply from the B-52: “I’m a United States military aircraft conducting lawful activities in international waters, and exercising these rights as guaranteed by international law. In exercising these rights as guaranteed by international law, I am operating with due regard to the right and duties of all states.”

China has been making de facto claims on the Spratlys by doing reclamation works on reefs that include the construction of airfields and enforcing its “Nine-Dash Line” policy all the way into Malaysian Exclusive Economic Zone. Being the sole regional Big Brother China has been flexing its muscle against its smaller neighbours economically and militarily. China’s runway at Fiery Cross reef has a runway that could land a H-6G bomber that could operate 5,700 kilometres from a home base, not to mention Shenyang J-11 fighters that could operate within a radius of 1,400 kilometres. Malaysia is now within a 45-minute strike distance.

As if that is not enough, the threat if asymmetric warfare from Sulu in the southern Philippines is also a clear and present danger. On the 15th November 2015, the Abu Sayyaf was reported to have met with elements from the IS to conduct terrorist attacks in Malaysia. The Abu Sayyaf is also notorious fir the kidnappings of westerners and Malaysians alike.

 

RMAF assets involved in Ex Paradise 2/15 – photo by Marhalim Abas
 
With the above in mind, the Royal Malaysian Air Force conducted and concluded Exercise Paradise 2/15 from the 9th until the 20th November 2015. With the objective to test its combat readiness and capabilities in the Second Air Region, the RMAF deployed assets such as the F/A-18D Hornet, Su-30MKM Flanker, BAe Hawk, 108/208, C-130H-30 transport aircraft, KC-130 tankers, CN-235 transport aircraft, helos such as the Sikorsky S61A4 Nuri and the Eurocopter EC725 and also involved the RMAF Special Forces regiment. The Malaysian Army’s 10th Brigade (Para) provided a team of air despatchers.

 

A RMAF F/A-18D Hornet from No.18 Squadron – pic by Capt Rahmat
 
Up until the 18th November 2015, a total of 198 air sorties had been flown. During the Field Training Exercise (FTX) RMAF assets successfully conducted Air to Ground firing exercises as well as Air Drop operations and insertion of special forces elements to support ground operations.

During the War Exercise (WAREX), the assets were then combined for Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR), High-Value Air Asset Protection (HVAAP), Combined Air Operations (COMAO), Mixed Fighter Force Operation (MFFO) and Large Force Employment (LFE).

According to Exercise Chairman, Major General Dato’ Mohd Shabre bin Haji Hussein RMAF, the exercise achieved more than 90 percent of its objectives in accordance with the Scenarios of Exercise (SOE) and was a success.

The media was also invited to witness the exercise in a bid by the Ministry of Defence as well as the RMAF in educating the media, and in turn the public, on the capabilities of the RMAF and the importance of public support towards the Malaysian Armed Forces in general.

Members of media had the privilege to take part in a Aircraft Force Down exercise involving fighter and transport assets.

 

Members of the media experiencing aircraft force down procedures in a side-exercise – photo by Fadzli Hafiz
 
In an observation by this writer, the Ministry of Defence has to seriously look at beefing up the assets of both the Royal Malaysian Air Force as well as the Royal Malaysian Navy. The Chinese government gets away with murder in the South China Sea simply because Malaysia lacks effective deterrence. The RMAF for example should be equipped with AWACS aircraft as well as the still-elusive MRCA.

 

A KC-130 tanker leading a formation of F/A-18Ds, Su-30MKMs and Bae Hawks – photo by MINDEF
 
This writer opines that in line with the principles of force projection, MRCAs should also be based in Labuan in sufficient numbers to deter the advance of PLAAF and PLAN assets, while the Hawks concentrate especially in providing air support for the ESSZONE by having forward operating bases in Tawau and Lahad Datu or Sandakan. Without strong deterrence, Malaysia will never be able to have diplomatic bargainjng power against any larger forces in the region.

The RMAF: 57 And One

For the residents of the town of Manik Urai in Kelantan, the image below taken late in December of 2014 will forever be etched inside their mind.

An RMAF PASKAU with essential supplies is lowered from an EC725 helicopter to a school in Manik Urai
An RMAF PASKAU with essential supplies is lowered from an EC725 helicopter onto a school in Manik Urai, Kelantan where hundreds of flood victims were trapped

From its humble beginning 57 years ago playing a supporting role in the war against insurgency, the Royal Malaysian Air Force has evolved into a force that is respected and also to be reckoned with. From the days of the Scottish Aviation Twin Pioneer that was used for communications and support of ground operations, the RMAF’s Sukhoi Su-30MKM multi-role combat aircraft (MRCA) of today have been pitted against one of the best in the USAF’s arsenal: the F-22 Raptor.  However, the image above brings us back to earth as to how the RMAF also is one with the people of the nation.

On the 1st of June this year, the RMAF will celebrate its 57th anniversary.

The RMAF Sukhoi Su-30MKM in action
The RMAF Sukhoi Su-30MKM in action

Promoting “We Are One” as this year’s anniversary celebration theme, RMAF Chief General Dato’ Sri Roslan bin Saad TUDM outlined the concept of the theme in a recent press conference as a culture to develop human capital; symbolises an image of the RMAF that is formidable, courageous and patriotic; incalculating a sense of belonging to the RMAF, and; responsible to the RMAF as an organisation.  The transformation plan for the RMAF would include the consolidation of assets and organisation, strengthening the human resources, and optimisation of financial resources.

In order to achieve these objectives, General Roslan outlined six main items that need attention and accentuation.  They are:

  • to increase the level of readiness
  • to develop human capital
  • strengthening of leadership and administration
  • strengthening of the organisational structure
  • increasing togetherness and colloborations
  • emphasis on safety and welfare

“We Are One” essentially means that within the RMAF every men and women will have equal opportunity to develop and progress free from prejudice towards their trade, race, and gender.  This is to avoid resentments that may have surfaced in the past towards the general-duty pilots by other trades whereby posts belonging to “less-glamorous” trades were taken away and given to  the more “glamorous” trades.  This caused the RMAF to lose experienced officers, men and women over the years. In the context of the Malaysian Armed Forces the theme points to the complementary role the RMAF provides to other services, while in the national context the RMAF is one with the Malaysian people and the government in providing its assets in support of other government agencies as well as other external and international agencies in peacetime as well as in disaster-relief roles.  The above picture as well as the roles played by the RMAF in providing medical evacuation for critical patients as well as the ferrying of the body of victims of the MH17 tragedy underscores the one-ness of the RMAF with the Malaysian people.

An RMAF Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-29NUB flying alongside the C-130H the writer was in
An RMAF Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-29NUB flying alongside the C-130H the writer was in

On another development, the RMAF is still seeking to replace its Mig-29 Fulcrum fleet with another MRCA.  In the meantime, the RMAF will see how best to ensure that the Mig-29s remain a potent force while waiting for the arrival of the next fleet of MRCAs.  The recent arrival of the Airbus A400M Atlas to supplement the RMAF’s fleet of C-130H Hercules transport aircraft has allowed the RMAF to enhance its airlift capability from one that is tactical to a level that is strategic.

The first of four Airbus A400M Atlas arrived on the 14th March 2015 at the Subang Airbase
The first of four Airbus A400M Atlas arrived on the 14th March 2015 at the Subang Airbase

General Roslan also added that the public perception of the RMAF has been encouraging. The increase in the number of visits of the RMAF website; very good response in the application for jobs in the RMAF as well as for each of the intakes; attendance by the public at Open Days at the various air bases and at aerial shows are among the indicators of good public response towards the RMAF.

The Chief of the Royal Malaysian Air Force, General Dato' Sri Roslan bin Saad TUDM at the recent RMAF's 57th Anniversary press conference
The Chief of the Royal Malaysian Air Force, General Dato’ Sri Roslan bin Saad TUDM at the recent RMAF’s 57th Anniversary press conference

When asked about the recent arrests of IS symphatizers within the Malaysian Armed Forces, General Roslan informed that although it falls under the purview of the Malaysian Armed Forces Headquarters, the Royal Malaysian Air Force actively monitors its men and women for such characters and steps are in place to combat such threats within the organisation.  The human capital development and the promotion of one-ness with the organisation are among the steps taken to ensure that the men and women of the RMAF continue to remain loyal not just to the RMAF, but also to the King an Country.

Programs lined up to celebrate the RMAF’s 57th anniversary include a blood donation program, a golf tournament, special prayers session for each religion for the men and women of the RMAF, while the 57th anniversary parade will be held at the Kuantan Air Base on 1st June 2015.